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Online Transactions

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image CHAPTER OVERVIEW

Unit 11.1 Internet communication
Unit 11.2 Online transactions
Unit 11.3 Internet of Things (IoT)
Unit 11.4 Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR)
Unit 11.5 Social media
Unit 11.6 Internet access
Unit 11.7 Browser and email software
Unit 11.8 Usability of web pages and websites

image By the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Describe and discuss what Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and video conferencing are
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of VoIP and video conferencing
  • Describe the different types of transactions you can perform online
  • Define the Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of social media
  • Discuss good and bad practices on social media platforms
  • Describe the limitations of fixed internet access
  • Discuss mobile internet access in relation to Wi-FI hotspots, WiMAX, Bluetooth and mobile internet
  • Differentiate between different email applications
  • Describe the key factors that define the usability of websites and how websites link to word processing and forms

INTRODUCTION

The internet has changed the way we communicate with each other and the way we interact with the world. More people are making calls and reading their news online than ever before and the number keeps on growing.

In this chapter, you will learn about various forms of online communication, how the internet can be used for transactions such as banking, shopping and make bookings, and what the Internet of Things (IoT) is. You will also look at the advantages, disadvantages and best practices of social media and the different forms of internet access that are available. In the final two units, you will look at browser and email software, as well as what key factors make a website user-friendly.

UNIT
 11.1   Internet communication

This unit examines different types of digital communication, such as VoIP and video conferencing, and discusses the advantages, disadvantages and best practices related to each of them.

VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VoIP)

VoIP is the technology that converts your voice into a digital signal, allowing you to make a call directly from a computer, a VoIP phone, or other data-driven devices.

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Figure 11.1: Skype using a smartphone, tablet and computer

VoIP has several key advantages over traditional telephone exchanges, for example:

  • The set-up costs are lower.
  • VoIP has all the same features as normal telephone networks, but also includes features such as call forwarding, call waiting, voicemail, three-way calling and more.
  • VoIP services can be accessed by staff anywhere they need it and these services can be centrally controlled.

VoIP also has its disadvantages, such as:

  • VoIP relies on you having internet.
  • There are also security concerns around VoIP calls. The data packets themselves can be intercepted and tampered with, and users are vulnerable to identity theft when using online VoIP services.
  • You should also make sure that your network prioritises your VoIP data packets.

VIDEO CONFERENCING

Video conferencing is linked to VoIP and is often offered as part of a VoIP contract. Video conferencing works by using an online platform to make or receive video calls. The most popular of these platforms is Skype, which is also a p opular VoIP platform.

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Figure 11.2: Video conferencing works by using an online platform

Video conferencing has many benefits for businesses in particular, such as:

  • Reduced travel costs.
  • Screen- and file-sharing allow the people taking part in the call to see what others are working on, which is good for collaboration.
  • Video conferencing is a visual communication medium, so you can see the facial expressions and body language of the people you are talking to.

A disadvantage of video conferencing is bad video or audio quality can make a video call very frustrating.

You should treat video calls as you would in-person conversations, so make sure to be polite and respectful and avoid talking over other people.

image Activity 11.1

Answer the following questions in your own words.

1.Compare VoIP and video conferencing. Tabulate the information.

a.What is each of the above?

b.What is each one used for (main function)?

c.What are the main advantages of each?

d.What are the main disadvantages of each?

e.Give an example of each.

2.What is the difference between VoIP and video conferencing?

UNIT
 11.2   Online transactions

The most popular is the EFT (electronic funds transfer), which allows you to log onto a banking website (or smartphone app) and send money from your account to another account.

Another popular online transaction is shopping. Online shopping is convenient.

Most travel agencies, hotels and airlines have websites where you can book all you need for your trip. You can use the World Wide Web to search for specials. You can also use airline websites for online flight check-in before you get to the airport.

Buy tickets to see your favourite performer or sports team. It is more convenient to book online and pay well in advance. Take a look at the case study below to see how online transactions fit into our everyday lives.

SHOPPING AND MAKING BOOKINGS ONLINE

Harry wants to surprise his wife with tickets to see her favourite band perform. He checks the ticket website and sees that all the Johannesburg shows are sold out, but there are still tickets available in Cape Town. He buys the tickets and decides that they should make a short holiday of their trip. He then goes to a website that compares flight prices. Harry enters the dates for when he wants to fly down and return, and finds a result that matches his budget. He books two tickets for those flights. Then he realises they will need somewhere to stay. Harry goes to an accommodation comparison site and enters the dates to check for availability. He sees that a lovely hotel close to the concert venue is offering an early booking special, so he books a room for a week. He logs onto his banking app and transfers his booking fee and deposit to the hotel. He also takes the time to reserve a rental car for the week. Following this, Harry decides to buy his wife a birthday gift while he is online and visits some shopping websites to look for a purchase. All of this takes him an hour from the comfort of his couch.

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Figure 11.3: Examples of online shopping and booking sites

image Activity 11.2

1.Why would a person use online banking for EFTs?

a.Would you use it? Why or why not?

2.What are some of the drawbacks of online shopping?

a.Have you done online shopping? Write a paragraph on your experience. Or explain why you do or do not like online shopping.

3.Give three examples of different online transactions (not banking or shopping).

UNIT
 11.3   The Internet of Things (IoT)

THE INTERNET OF THINGS

More and more devices are able to access the internet. Various devices like fridges and washing machines have the potential to connect to each other through the internet. This has led to the rise of something called the Internet of Things, or IoT.

Everything that can be switched on and off can be connected in the IoT, from smartphones, coffee-makers and washing machines, to headphones, lamps and wearable devices. This also applies to components of machines, for example a jet engine of an airplane or the drill of an oil rig.

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INTERNET OF THINGS EXPLAINED

BENEFITS OF IoT

The IoT can be used to connect “smart homes”, where you can use your smartphone to control everything from the temperature of the air-conditioners to the music that plays when you walk in the door.

The IoT can also be used to build “smart cities”, where transportation and the movement of people can be controlled and monitored and made more efficient.

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HOW IT WORKS: INTERNET OF THINGS

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Figure 11.4: Areas where IoT can be beneficial

Smart buildings can reduce energy costs by using sensors that detect how many occupants are in a room. The temperature can adjust automatically – for example, turning the air conditioner on if sensors detect a conference room is full or turning the heat down if everyone in the office has gone home.

In agriculture, IoT-based smart farming systems can help monitor, for instance, light, temperature, humidity and soil moisture of crop fields using connected sensors. IoT is also instrumental in automating irrigation systems.

In a smart city, IoT sensors and deployments, such as smart streetlights and smart meters, can help alleviate traffic, conserve energy, monitor and address environmental concerns, and improve sanitation.

image Activity 11.3

Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:

WITH SMART CITIES, YOUR EVERY STEP WILL BE RECORDED

By Sara Degli-Esposti & Siraj Ahmed Shaikh | 17 April 2018

Modern cities are brimming with objects that receive, collect and transmit data. This includes mobile phones but also objects actually embedded into our cities, such as traffic lights and air pollution stations. Even something as simple as a garbage bin can now be connected to the internet, meaning that it forms part of what is called the internet of things (IoT). A smart city collects the data from these digital objects, and uses it to create new products and services that make cities more liveable.

Although they have huge potential to make life better, the possibility of increasingly smarter cities also raises serious privacy concerns. Through sensors embedded into our cities, and the smartphones in our pockets, smart cities will have the power to constantly identify where people are, who they are meeting and even perhaps what they are doing.

Following revelations that 87 million people’s Facebook data was allegedly breached and used to influence electoral voting behaviour, it is ever more important to properly scrutinise where our data goes and how it is used. Similarly, as more and more critical infrastructure falls victim to cyber-attacks, we need to consider that our cities are not only becoming smarter, they are also becoming more vulnerable to cyber-attacks.

Extract from https://theconversation.com/with-smart-cities-your-every-step-will-be-recorded-94527

1.What does the term Internet of Things (IoT) refer to?

2.Refer to paragraph 1. Many examples of IoT are given that could improve “liveability” in a city. Elaborate on any TWO of these examples (or give your own) by describing how they would improve citizens’ lives.

3.How do the Internet of Things and Big data relate to each other?

4.Discuss two challenges a city would face when trying to implement the systems necessary to create smart cities, besides the challenge of funding such a project?

5.Many citizens of such smart cities say that privacy concerns are only relevant to people who have something to hide. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Motivate your answer in a short paragraph.

6.Describe a scenario of the type of cyber-attack that could be launched on a smart city.

UNIT
 11.4   Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR)

Globalisation can be defined as a process of connection, interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments. This process is driven by international trade, investment, technology and big data. This has resulted in:

  • An efficient market where there is an equilibrium between what buyers are willing to pay for a good or service and what sellers are willing to sell for a good or service.
  • Increased competition between companies, which improves the service and quality of goods or services delivered to the consumers.
  • Security as countries’ economies are intertwined and dependant on each other.
  • Wealth equality throughout the world as poorer nations have more job opportunities.

Society has gone through various stages. These are:

  • The First Industrial Revolution, in the late 18th to early 19th centuries, is famous for industrialising agricultural work.
  • The Second Industrial Revolution, in the late 19th and early 20th century, brought iron and steel into industry.
  • The Third Industrial Revolution is the Digital Revolution with the age of the computer and the internet.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution sees the digitisation of our society.

Globalisation and technology are intertwined as the movement of people, goods and ideas is accelerated and broadened by new forms of transport and communication. The spread of the internet and the relatively low cost of digital technology connect more people with the world. For example, small traders in shanties on the outskirts of Nairobi export across east Africa. In China, “Taobao villages” allow previously cut-off rural populations to sell goods on Alibaba’s trading platform.

Sectors which the Fourth Industrial Revolution has impacted greatly includes:

  • Agricultural sector: AI-powered machine vision systems can measure crop populations and detect weeds or plant pests and use robotic sprayers to precisely apply herbicides.
  • Healthcare sector: Precision medicine helps doctors analyse a patient’s genome sequence, medical history, and lifestyle, making a diagnosis more reliable.

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THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

image Activity 11.4

In small groups, research the influences of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on the following sectors:

  • Retail
  • Building
  • Social
  • Travel

image Activity 11.5

Answer the following questions in your own words.

1.Answer the following questions.

a.Name three types of technologies from the 3IR that you have personally come into contact with.

b.Name three types of technologies from the 4IR that you have personally come into contact with.

c.Do you think any technologies from the first three industrial revolutions can be replaced by technologies from the 4IR? Motivate your answer. Note: You can use an example to help you motivate your answer.

2.The internet is playing a large role in the lives of 60% of the total South African population, with 51% accessing it through their mobiles. Find out what the situation is in your school.

  • How many learners have access to the internet?
  • How many learners access the internet through their smartphones?
  • What brands of smartphones do they have?
  • How much time do they spend on their phones?
  • What are they doing on their phones?
  • What social media platforms are they using?
  • How does this compare to the world-wide trends?

a.Create your own task definition using the knowledge you have gained in this section.

b.Share it with the rest of the class.

UNIT
 11.5   Social media

Social media has become a staple of our digital lives, from tweeting your thoughts on Twitter, to sharing pictures of your life on Instagram. Social media is used to market products, make announcements and stay in touch with the people who matter to you.

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Something to know

Some interesting statistics on the use of social media

  • There were 3,03 billion active social media users in the world in 2018.
  • Facebook: 500 000 new users are added every day; that means six new profiles every second.
  • Twitter: 500 million tweets are posted every day; this means 6 000 tweets every second.
  • YouTube: 300 YouTube videos are uploaded every minute and 1 billion hours of videos are watched every day.
  • Instagram: More than 95 million photos are uploaded every day.
  • Pinterest: There are 200 million active users each month.
  • Snapchat: There are 187 million active users every day.
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Figure 11.5: The reasons why people used social media in 2018

This section looks at the advantages and disadvantages of social media, good practices to use on social media and what to avoid doing when you are online.

ADVANTAGES

You can connect with anyone, anywhere in the world, staying in touch with friends who have moved away or family members who live in other countries.

Using social media keeps you up to date with what is happening in the world in real time. This is especially true of sites such as Twitter, where those on the ground at major events can tweet what is happening as it happens.

Social media platforms can be used to promote awareness and causes. Social activists use social media to inform people about issues and engage them in conversations about those issues.

Social media builds communities. Like-minded people can come together and discuss the things that interest or influence them.

DISADVANTAGES

Something called the social media bubble draws people to communities where their views (and only their views) are supported and encouraged. This can lead to people being misinformed about the world or only getting one opinion on an issue.

There is also a psychological effect on social media users. Since most people only share the positives in their lives on social media, others may compare their lives to the digital lives of their friends and family and find them lacking in something. Studies have shown that using social media can lead to depression.

Cyberbullying is also a big problem on social media and can cause great emotional harm to victims.

Social media is also used as a platform to scam or steal from people, especially older people who are not always internet literate and are more often likely to be the victims of 419 scams.

BEST PRACTICES

There are several good, common-sense practices you can follow when using social networking sites:

  • Manage your privacy settings: Learn about and use the privacy and security settings on your social networking sites. They help you control who sees what you post and manage your online experience in a positive way.
  • Keep personal info personal: Be careful how much personal information you provide on social networking sites. The more information you post, the easier it may be for someone to use that information to steal your identity, access your data, or commit other crimes such as stalking. Restrict who can have access to different types of information on your profile. Avoid publishing personal information like email addresses, home address and phone numbers.
  • Think carefully about who you allow to become a “friend”.
  • Restrict the amount of time you spend on social networking sites: Many companies and schools block social media websites as a result of the abuse of resources like bandwidth, especially by downloading and uploading large files, photographs and videos.

image Activity 11.6

Answer the following questions in your own words.

1.List three social media websites you use. Also explain why you use each of them.

2.Mention three advantages and three disadvantages of social media websites for you.

3.Mention three things you must do and three things you must not do when using social media. Also give the reasons why you think that.

4.Why should you investigate news articles before you share them?

5.Do you know of any examples of fake news? Discuss what you know about it and how it can affect people who read it.

UNIT
 11.6   Internet access

Being able to access the internet allows you to access a world of information with a simple search and the click of a button. This unit will look at the limitations of fixed-line internet access and the different types of portable internet access and connections available, such as Wi-Fi hotspots, Bluetooth and mobile internet connections.

MOBILE INTERNET ACCESS

There are many types of mobile internet access, such as cellular data signal, Wi-Fi hotspots and WiMAX. This unit will look at several different types of mobile internet access and where each one is usually used.

WI-FI HOTSPOTS

A Wi-Fi hotspot is a wireless access point that you can connect to using the wireless connectors in your computing device. When we talk about Wi-Fi hotspots, we are usually talking about the publicly accessible connection points that businesses supply (usually for free) to their customers.

You can also create a wireless hotspot in your home by using a router with a wireless connector, or on the go by using your cellular phone or other devices capable of connecting to the internet.

Wi-Fi hotspots can usually be found in coffee shops, airports and hotels. Some Wi-Fi hotspots can also be provided as a public service, for example, the city of Tshwane in Gauteng offers a service called TshWiFi.

Your wireless capable device (laptop or smartphone) can search for and connect to Wi-Fi hotspots nearby.

WiMAX

WIMax is used to connect multiple devices over a longer range than Wi-Fi could and as a replacement for the GSM connections standards for mobile devices. WiMAX can cover long distances (like a cellphone signal network) and deliver high-speed internet access (like broadband connections).

More devices have Wi-Fi connectors built in than they do WiMAX connectors and most mobile carriers choose to use Long-Term Evolution (LTE) instead of WiMAX in their networks.

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MORE ON BLUETOOTH

Watch this video if you want to learn more about Bluetooth.

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https://youtu.be/jzxZUJmOu30

BLUETOOTH

Bluetooth is a wireless communication standard that allows electronic devices to connect to and interact with each other wirelessly. Bluetooth does not rely on mobile data, cellular signal or Wi-Fi to connect, as long as the devices that want to connect are within range of each other (and have each other’s pass codes), they can connect.

Bluetooth can be used for many different things, like connecting Bluetooth-enabled devices such as keyboards, mice and speakers to your computer or headphones to your smartphone. You can also use it to send documents to Bluetooth-enabled printers or connect your smartphone to your car’s Bluetooth system to make hands-free calls, listen to music or listen to text messages out loud and send them using text-to-speech input.

NFC

NFC (Near field communication) is a method of wireless data transfer that detects and then enables technology in close proximity to communicate without the need for an internet connection.

You can use NFC at a local supermarket, train station, taxi or coffee shop that supports contactless payments via your phone’s NFC chip.

MOBILE INTERNET

Mobile internet (or mobile broadband) is the term used to describe the wireless internet access you can get through cell phone towers and other digital devices that use portable modems (such as tablets and smartphones).

Mobile internet lets smartphone users connect to the internet wherever they have decent network signal. Most cellular service providers also offer mobile internet packages where you use a small modem (called a dongle) to connect to the cellular network. These dongles can either plug directly into your computer (using USB) or can be used to create a Wi-Fi hotspot.

It is also an alternative to fixed-line internet connections (such as ADSL) and is useful in areas where ADSL services are not available or for users who do not want to have a telephone line installed.

There are different types of mobile internet connections. The most common are 3G (which stands for Third Generation) and LTE or 4G. LTE is the current standard for mobile internet. It is faster than 3G and can support things like high-definition video streaming. Looking to the future, 5G promises to be even faster than 4G and will become the new standard in internet connection for mobile devices.

With mobile internet, you can use your smartphone as a modem. You can turn your smartphone into a Wi-Fi dongle to connect other devices to the internet using something called tethering. Using your smartphone as a modem gives you access to the internet in areas where there are no Wi-Fi hotspots.

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MORE ON 5G

Watch this video if you want to learn more about 5G.

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https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=MC_Sfkh5-zQ

Figure 11.6 shows an example of the tethering screen on an Android device.

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Figure 11.6: Tethering settings on an Android device

image Activity 11.7

Answer the following questions in your own words.

1.Briefly discuss the limitations of fixed internet access, paying particular attention to the South African context.

2.What is a Wi-Fi hotspot and give an example of one?

3.What does WiMAX stand for?

4.What is Bluetooth and how does it work?

5.List the two most common types of mobile internet connections and describe how they differ from each other.

UNIT
 11.7   Browser and email software

There is a huge range of internet browsers available for you to choose from. Browsers are simply the software you use to access the websites on the World Wide Web.

Some browsers are specifically linked to a manufacturer or operating system, such as Safari for Apple devices with iOS and MacOS, or Microsoft Edge for devices with Windows OS. This is not to say that you cannot download browser software from the internet and use it instead of the browser that comes standard with your device.

EMAIL

Email is a widely used form of communication. It consists of software for creating, sending, receiving and organising electronic mail (or email). Modern desktop email clients like Microsoft Outlook, Windows Live Mail and Mozilla Thunderbird offer advanced features for managing email, including WYSIWYG editors for composing email messages, anti-spam and anti-phishing security protection, advanced search capabilities, and rules and filters for more efficiently handling and organising messages and email folders.

A large number of online email services, called webmail, exist with features and functionality for managing email similar to their desktop email software counterparts. Some of the more popular online email services are Yahoo! Mail, Gmail, Hotmail (Windows Live Mail) and AOL Mail.

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Figure 11.7: The Gmail, Outlook and Apple Mail application logos
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Figure 11.8: Email user interfaces

UNIT
 11.8   Usability of web pages and websites

Website usability looks at how user-friendly a website or web page is. There are five key factors that determine the usability of a site:

  • Readability: This feature is one of the more important aspects of web design usability. Readable text affects how users process the information from the content. Poor readability scares readers away from the content. On the other hand, done correctly, readability allows users to efficiently read and process the information in the text. You want users to be able to read your content and absorb it easily.
  • Navigation: Navigation is very important to ensure users are able to find what they are looking for easily and intuitively. The structure of the navigation should be simple and the main links (or menu system) should be easy to locate and identify. They should always appear in a consistent position on the website. Links should be short and it should be simple to figure out what the link is leading to. Web designers should ensure that no broken links occur on the site.
  • Consistency: This feature affects both usability and readability. Consistency means, for example, that all headers of the same importance should be treated the same in terms of size, colour and font etc. For example, all <h1> headers in an article should look identical. This consistency provides users with a familiar focus point when they are scanning the text, and it helps to organise the content.
  • Layout: Layout refers to how the various elements (text, graphics, buttons, etc.) are arranged on a web page. Pages should be designed and laid out in a way best suited to their intended audience or readers. Text and graphic objects on the page should be adapted to fit standard monitor sizes and resolutions.
  • Typography: Typography refers to fonts and how they are put together. The font you use on your website needs to meet two specific criteria:

1.How easy is it to read?

2.Can it be rendered in HTML?

Each of these factors covers a single aspect of the website and they all need to work together to create a user-friendly website.

LINK TO WORD PROCESSING AND FORMS

Websites can link to word processors and word-processing forms in a few ways:

1.It is possible to create basic web pages in some word processors (such as Microsoft Word).

2.You can use word processors to create content for your websites.

3.You can use word processors to create forms for your websites.

image Activity 11.8

Answer the following questions in your own words.

1.Below are two websites that sell car engines. Look at the navigation designs of these websites and answer the following questions.

Website A

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Website B

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a.Which website has the best readability? Give two reasons for your answer.

b.Which website has the best navigation? Give two reasons for your answer.

c.Which website has the best consistency? Give two reasons for your answer.

d.Which website has the best layout? Give two reasons for your answer.

e.Which website has the best typography? Give two reasons for your answer.

2.Based on your comparisons of the two websites, which website do you prefer. Give two reasons for your answer.

3.Name two things that can be done to improve the website you least prefer.

REVISION ACTIVITY

QUESTION 1: MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.1Which of the following cannot be done with VoIP? (1)

A.Voicemail

B.Call forwarding

C.Call waiting

D.Instant messaging

1.2Which of the following is not a disadvantage of video conferencing? (1)

A.Lagging caused by bad internet connections

B.Technology can fail during a call

C.Remote access

D.Bad audio quality

1.3What does EFT stand for? (1)

A.Electronic Financial Transfer

B.Electronic Funds Transfer

C.Electric Finance Transfer

D.Electric Fund Transfer

1.4Which of the following is an example of e-commerce? (1)

A.Online shopping

B.Online banking

C.Online government services

D.Online gaming

1.5Smart fridges use embedded ___________ to connect to the internet. (1)

A.Network adapters

B.Network cables

C.Wi-Fi

D.Interface cards

QUESTION 2: TRUE OR FALSE

Choose the answer and write True or False next to the question number. Correct the statement if it is FALSE. Change the underlined word(s) to make the statement TRUE. (You may not simply use the word NOT to change the statement.)

a.VoIP converts digital signals to analogue signals. (1)

b.VoIP can work with an unstable internet. (1)

c.Data packets are protected from internet attacks. (1)

d.The Internet of Things is a system in which everyday appliances connect to computers. (1)

QUESTION 3: MATCHING ITEMS

Choose a term/concept from Column B that matches a description in Column A. Write only the letter next to the question number (e.g. 1J). (5)

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QUESTION 4: FILL IN THE MISSING WORDS

Fill in the missing word(s) in the following statements. Provide only one word for each space.

a.EFTs allow you to log onto a ___________ website and send money from your account to another account. (1)

b.If you do not have physical money on you, you can make a payment by ___________. (1)

c.Any object that makes use of a(n) ___________ source can connect to the Internet of Things. (1)

d.___________ is the most popular social network. (1)

e.Social media ___________ things and people together. (1)

QUESTION 5: CASE STUDY

Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow:

WITH SMART CITIES, YOUR EVERY STEP WILL BE RECORDED

By Sara Degli-Esposti & Siraj Ahmed Shaikh | 17 April 2018

Modern cities are brimming with objects that receive, collect and transmit data. This includes mobile phones but also objects actually embedded into our cities, such as traffic lights and air pollution stations. Even something as simple as a garbage bin can now be connected to the internet, meaning that it forms part of what is called the Internet of Things (IoT). A smart city collects the data from these digital objects, and uses it to create new products and services that make cities more liveable.

Although they have huge potential to make life better, the possibility of increasingly smarter cities also raises serious privacy concerns. Through sensors embedded into our cities, and the smartphones in our pockets, smart cities will have the power to constantly identify where people are, who they are meeting and even perhaps what they are doing.

Following revelations that 87 million people’s Facebook data was allegedly breached and used to influence electoral voting behaviour, it is ever more important to properly scrutinise where our data goes and how it is used. Similarly, as more and more critical infrastructure falls victim to cyber-attacks, we need to consider that our cities are not only becoming smarter, they are also becoming more vulnerable to cyber-attacks.

Extract from https://theconversation.com/with-smart-cities-your-every-step-will-be-recorded-94527

5.1What does the term Internet of Things (IoT) refer to? (2)

5.2Refer to paragraph 1. Many examples of IoT are given that could improve “liveability” in a city. Elaborate on any TWO of these examples (or give your own) by describing how they would improve citizens’ lives. (2)

5.3How do the Internet of Things and big data relate to each other? (2)

5.4Discuss two challenges a city would face when trying to implement the systems necessary to create smart cities, besides the challenge of funding such a project? (2)

5.5Many citizens of such smart cities say that privacy concerns are only relevant to people who have something to hide. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Motivate your answer in a short paragraph. (2)

QUESTION 6: SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS

Like many of his friends, Zike likes to stay up to date with the current affairs of the world, gossip and the media. Zike’s teacher has noticed that a lot of his learners get distracted by their smartphones and as a result do not pay attention in class.

6.1What three dangers are the learners most vulnerable to through social media websites such as Facebook? (3)

6.2What four best practices should Zike’s teacher suggest to the learners to help them navigate the social media they are regularly exposed to? (4)

6.3Recently, Zike has started to notice that someone has been stalking him online.

a.Mention one thing he can do to solve the problem.

b.Mention one thing he should avoid to prevent the problem from getting worse. (2)

6.4Briefly explain why Zike needs to know what data cap is. (2)

TOTAL: [40]

AT THE END OF THE CHAPTER
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