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# Chapter summary

## Chapter summary

Presentation: VPfhw

• Electromagnetic radiation has both a wave and a particle nature.

• Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of approximately $$\text{3} \times \text{10}^{\text{8}}$$ $$\text{m·s^{-1}}$$ in a vacuum.

• The Electromagnetic spectrum consists of the following types of radiation: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma-rays.

• Gamma-rays have the most energy and are the most penetrating, while radio waves have the lowest energy and are the least penetrating.

 Physical Quantities Quantity Unit name Unit symbol Energy (E) joule J Wavelength (λ) metre m Period (T) second s Frequency (f) hertz Hz ($$\text{s^{-1}}$$) Speed of light (c) metre per second $$\text{m·s^{-1}}$$

Table 11.3: Units used in electromagnetic radiation

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