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# Test yourself now

High marks in science are the key to your success and future plans. Test yourself and learn more on Siyavula Practice.

## 13.6 Chapter summary

• Instead of writing $$2$$ fifths, we may write $$\frac{2}{5}$$. This is called the common fraction notation. The number $$5$$ below the line is called the denominator. The number $$2$$ above the line is called the numerator.
• $$\frac{3}{4}$$, $$\frac{6}{8}$$, $$\frac{15}{20}$$, $$\frac{45}{60}$$ are all different ways of expressing the same number. They are therefore called equivalent fractions.
• Proper fractions are fractions that are less than one; the numerator is always less than the denominator.
• Improper fractions are fractions that are greater than or equal to one; the numerator is larger than or equal to the denominator.
• Mixed numbers (mixed fractions) are numbers that have an integer part and a fraction part; the fraction part must be a proper fraction (less than one).
• When you simplify a fraction, you must reduce the numbers in the fraction to the smallest possible values. We do this by cancelling the highest common factor from the numerator and the denominator.
• To convert a mixed number to an improper fraction, start at the denominator; then follow the solid arrow around and multiply by the integer in the front; then continue following the dashed arrow and add the numerator. Keep the same denominator: \begin{align} 4\frac{2}{3} = \frac{(3 \times 4) + 2}{3} = \frac{12 + 2}{3} = \frac{14}{3} \end{align}
• To convert an improper fraction to a mixed number, divide the numerator by the denominator (change the fraction to a division problem).
\begin{align} \frac{5}{2} = 5 \div 2 \end{align}

Start by finding out how many times $$2$$ fits into $$5$$. $$2 \times 2 = 4$$, which leaves $$1$$ as a remainder. Keep the denominator the same.

\begin{align} \frac{5}{2} = 2\frac{1}{2} \end{align}
• To add (or subtract) fractions:
• Make sure that they have the same denominators. Convert the fractions to equivalent fractions that have the same denominators using the lowest common denominator (LCD), if necessary.
• Add (or subtract) the numerators.
• To multiply fractions:
• Cross cancel any common factors. (This is not strictly necessary, but it will make your life easier.)
• Multiply the numerators, and multiply the denominators.
• Multiplying fractions follows this rule:
\begin{align} \frac{a}{b} \times \frac{c}{d} = \frac{a \times c}{b \times d} \end{align}
• To divide fractions:
• “Tip and times”: multiply by the reciprocal of the fraction in the divisor (the second fraction).
• Multiply the fractions as normal.
• Dividing fractions follows this rule, which uses the reciprocal of the second fraction:
\begin{align} \frac{a}{b} \div \frac{c}{d} = \frac{a}{b} \times \frac{d}{c} \end{align}
• Remember that per cent means per hundred. For example, $$\frac{2}{10} = \frac{20}{100}$$ which is $$20$$ per hundred $$= 20\%$$. To convert a fraction to a percentage, find the equivalent fraction with the denominator $$100$$. The numerator of the new fraction shows you the amount per hundred, or per cent.
• To calculate the percentage increase or decrease:

### Calculate the difference between the two amounts.

• If it is a percentage increase, then subtract the original amount from the new amount.
• If it is a percentage decrease, then subtract the final amount from the new amount.