24.8 Summary
 An ordered pair consists of an \(x\)value called the \(x\)coordinate and a \(y\)value called the \(y\)coordinate. Notation: \((x; y)\)
 Translating a shape means sliding a shape from one position to another.
 Reflecting a shape means flipping a shape over a line of reflection or a mirror line.
 Reflecting \(P(x; y)\) in the \(x\)axis produces image \(P'(x; y)\): \[(x; y) \rightarrow (x; y)\]
 Reflecting \(P(x; y)\) in the \(y\)axis produces image \(P'(x; y)\): \[(x; y) \rightarrow (x; y)\]
 Rotating a shape means turning a shape around the centre of rotation.

A rotation transformation has three components:
 the angle of rotation
 the centre of rotation
 the direction of rotation.
 A clockwise direction means turning in the same direction as the hands of a clock.
 An anticlockwise direction means turning in the opposite direction to the direction of the hands of a clock.
 Enlarging a shape means making a shape bigger by a scale factor.
 Reducing a shape means making a shape smaller by a scale factor.

An enlargement or reduction transformation has two components:
 the scale factor
 the centre of enlargement/reduction
 For enlargement transformations, the scale factor is \(> 1\).
 For reduction transformations, the scale factor is a fraction between 0 and 1.
 Perimeter of the image = scale factor \(\times\) perimeter of the shape.
 Area of the image = (scale factor)\(^2 \times\) area of the shape.