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# Chapter 4: Plant and animal tissues

## 4.1 Overview (ESG62)

This section introduces the concept of tissues to learners, building upon their previous knowledge of cells. Learners need to be able to recognise a range of key tissue-types found in plants and animals. The structure, location and function of each of the tissues will be described, and learners need to understand how structure and function are related.

This unit lends itself to microscope work. There are many opportunities for learners to view the various plant and tissues under the microscope either by using already prepared slides or making their own slides (for plant tissue).

 Key Concepts: Tissues are group of similar cells that are structurally adapted to perform a particular function. Cells are adapted for specific functions through a process of cell differentiation. Examples of plant tissues include: xylem, phloem, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, epidermis and meristematic tissue. Examples of animal tissues are: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue. Various plant tissues are important ingredients in traditional medicine. Biotechnology is a modern science that involves manipulating the properties of tissues and cells. Many tissues group together to form an organ, which has a very specific role in an organism. The leaf is an example of a plant organ that is made up of a number of tissues that collectively enable the process of photosynthesis.

### Introduction (ESG63)

`If you want to understand function, study structure.'- Francis Crick in his book "What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery" (1988).

The relationship between structure and function is important to understanding this chapter and is important to the study of Life Sciences in general. This chapter requires you to build on the concepts you understood in the section on cell structure.

• Tissues are group of similar cells that are structurally adapted to perform a particular function.
• Cells are adapted for specific functions through a process of cell differentiation.
• Examples of plant tissues include: xylem, phloem, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, epidermis and meristematic tissue.
• Examples of animal tissues are: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue.
• Various plant tissues are important ingredients in traditional medicine.
• Biotechnology is a modern science that involves manipulating the properties of tissues and cells.
• Many tissues group together to form an organ, which has a very specific role in an organism.
• The leaf is an example of a plant organ that is made up of a number of tissues that collectively enable the process of photosynthesis.

Previous chapters have discussed the molecular and cellular levels of organisation of living organisms. In this chapter we will examine how similar cells associate together to form tissues.

atom$$\rightarrow$$molecule$$\rightarrow$$cell$$\rightarrow$$tissue$$\rightarrow$$organ$$\rightarrow$$system$$\rightarrow$$organism$$\rightarrow$$ecosystem