A group of **\(\text{15}\)** learners count the number of sweets they each have. This is the data they collect:

\[\begin{array}{c c c c c}
4 & 11 & 14 & 7 & 14 \\
5 & 8 & 7 & 12 & 12 \\
5 & 13 & 10 & 6 & 7
\end{array}\]

Calculate the **range** of values in the data set.

We first need to order the data set:

\[\{4; 5; 5; 6; 7; 7; 7; 8; 10; 11; 12; 12; 13; 14; 14\}\]

Next we find the maximum value in the data set:

\[\text{maximum value } = \text{14}\]

Then we find the minimum value in the data set:

\[\text{minimum value } = \text{4}\]

Finally, we calculate the range of the data set:

\begin{align*}
\text{range } & = \text{(maximum value) } - \text{ (minimum value)}\\
& = (\text{14}) - (\text{4}) \\
& = \text{10}
\end{align*}

A group of **\(\text{10}\)** learners count the number of playing cards they each have. This is the data they collect:

\[\begin{array}{c c c c c}
5 & 1 & 3 & 1 & 4 \\
10 & 1 & 3 & 3 & 4
\end{array}\]

Calculate the **range** of values in the data set.

We first need to order the data set:

\[\{1; 1; 1; 3; 3; 3; 4; 4; 5; 10\}\]

Next we find the maximum value in the data set:

\[\text{maximum value } = \text{10}\]

Then we find the minimum value in the data set:

\[\text{minimum value } = \text{1}\]

Finally, we calculate the range of the data set:

\begin{align*}
\text{range} & = \text{(maximum value) } - \text{ (minimum value)}\\
& = \text{10} - \text{1} \\
& = \text{9}
\end{align*}

Find the range of the data set

\[\left\{1; 2; 3; 4; 4; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 8; 9; 10; 10\right\}\]

The data set is already ordered.

Firstly, we find the maximum value in the data set:

\[\text{maximum value } = \text{10}\]

Secondly, we find the minimum value in the data set:

\[\text{minimum value } = \text{1}\]

Finally, we calculate the range of the data set:

\begin{align*}
\text{range} & = \text{(maximum value) } - \text{ (minimum value)}\\
& = \text{10} - \text{1} \\
& = \text{9}
\end{align*}

What are the quartiles of this data set?

\[\left\{3; 5; 1; 8; 9; 12; 25; 28; 24; 30; 41; 50\right\}\]

We first order the data set.

\[\left\{1; 3; 5; 8; 9; 12; 24; 25; 28; 30; 41; 50\right\}\]

Next we find the ranks of the quartiles. Using the percentile formula with \(n = 12\), we can find the rank of the \(25^{\text{th}}\), \(50^{\text{th}}\) and \(75^{\text{th}}\) percentiles:

\begin{align*}
{r}_{25} & = \frac{25}{100}\left(12 - 1\right) + 1 \\
& = \text{3,75} \\
{r}_{50} & = \frac{50}{100}\left(12 - 1\right) + 1 \\
& = \text{6,5} \\
{r}_{75} & = \frac{75}{100}\left(12 - 1\right) + 1 \\
& = \text{9,25}
\end{align*}

Find the values of the quartiles. Note that each of these ranks is a fraction, meaning that the value for each percentile is somewhere in between two values from the data set.

For the \(25^{\text{th}}\) percentile the rank is \(\text{3,75}\), which is between the third and fourth values. Therefore the \(25^{\text{th}}\) percentile is \(\frac{5 + 8}{2} = \text{6,5}\).

For the \(50^{\text{th}}\) percentile (the median) the rank is \(\text{6,5}\), meaning halfway between the sixth and seventh values. Therefore the median is \(\frac{12 + 24}{2} = \text{18}\). For the \(75^{\text{th}}\) percentile the rank is \(\text{9,25}\), meaning between the ninth and tenth values. Therefore the \(75^{\text{th}}\) percentile is \(\frac{28 + 30}{2} = 29\).

Therefore we get the following values for the quartiles: \(Q_1 = \text{6,5}\); \(Q_2 = 18\); \(Q_3 = 29\).

A class of \(\text{12}\) learners writes a test and the results are as follows:

\[\left\{20; 39; 40; 43; 43; 46; 53; 58; 63; 70; 75; 91\right\}\]

Find the range, quartiles and the interquartile range.

The data set is ordered.

The range is:

\begin{align*}
\text{range} & = \text{(maximum value) } - \text{ (minimum value)}\\
& = (\text{91}) - (\text{20}) \\
& = \text{71}
\end{align*}

To find the quartiles we start by finding the ranks of the quartiles. Using the percentile formula with \(n = 12\), we can find the rank of the \(25^{\text{th}}\), \(50^{\text{th}}\) and \(75^{\text{th}}\) percentiles:

\begin{align*}
{r}_{25} & = \frac{25}{100}\left(12 - 1\right) + 1 \\
& = \text{3,75} \\
{r}_{50} & = \frac{50}{100}\left(12 - 1\right) + 1 \\
& = \text{6,5} \\
{r}_{75} & = \frac{75}{100}\left(12 - 1\right) + 1 \\
& = \text{9,25}
\end{align*}

Find the values of the quartiles. Note that each of these ranks is a fraction, meaning that the value for each percentile is somewhere in between two values from the data set.

For the \(25^{\text{th}}\) percentile the rank is \(\text{3,75}\), which is between the third and fourth values. Therefore the \(25^{\text{th}}\) percentile is \(\frac{40 + 43}{2} = \text{41,5}\).

For the \(50^{\text{th}}\) percentile (the median) the rank is \(\text{6,5}\), meaning halfway between the sixth and seventh values. Therefore the median is \(\frac{46 + 53}{2} = \text{49,5}\). For the \(75^{\text{th}}\) percentile the rank is \(\text{9,25}\), meaning between the ninth and tenth values. Therefore the \(75^{\text{th}}\) percentile is \(\frac{63 + 70}{2} = \text{66,5}\).

Therefore we get the following values for the quartiles: \(Q_1 = \text{41,5}\); \(Q_2 = \text{49,5}\); \(Q_3 = \text{66,5}\).

Interquartile range:

\begin{align*}
\text{interquartile range } & = \text{quartile 3 } - \text{ quartile 1} \\
& = \text{66,5} - \text{41,5} \\
& = 25
\end{align*}